stem-cell-research-blogLOWERING of ejection fraction of heart is a serious case in heart patients. Often people suffer from breathing problems and low heart rate due to lowering of ejection fraction of heart after a person experiences a cardiac attack. But stem cell once again hovered its magic stick round, and it has been seen that regeneration of new heart muscles and veins has improved the percentage about 30%.

By definition, the volume of blood within a ventricle immediately before a contraction is known as the end-diastolic volume. Similarly, the volume of blood left in a ventricle at the end of contraction is end-systolic volume. The difference between end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes is the stroke volume, the volume of blood ejected with each beat. Ejection fraction (Ef) is the fraction of the end-diastolic volume that is ejected with each beat; that is, it is stroke volume (SV) divided by end-diastolic volume (EDV):

Ef = {SV}/{EDV} ={EDV - ESV}/{EDV}

n a healthy 70-kg (154-lb) man, the SV is approximately 70 ml and the left ventricular EDV is 120 ml, giving an ejection fraction of 70/120, or 0.58 (58%).

Right ventricular volumes being roughly equal to those of the left ventricle, the ejection fraction of the right ventricle is normally equal to that of the left ventricle within narrow limits.

Healthy individuals typically have ejection fractions between 50% and 65%.However, normal values depend upon the modality being used to calculate the ejection fraction. Damage to the muscle of the heart (myocardium), such as that sustained during myocardial infarction or in cardiomyopathy, impairs the heart’s ability to eject blood and therefore reduces ejection fraction. This reduction in the ejection fraction can manifest itself clinically as heart failure.

The ejection fraction is one of the most important predictors of prognosis; those with significantly reduced ejection fractions typically have poorer prognoses. However, recent studies have indicated that a preserved ejection fraction does not mean freedom from risk.

ba-web-heart-bluebody-sm1Ejection fraction is commonly measured by echocardiography, in which the volumes of the heart’s chambers are measured during the cardiac cycle. Ejection fraction can then be obtained by dividing stroke volume by end-diastolic volume as described above.

Other methods of measuring ejection fraction include cardiac MRI, fast scan cardiac computed axial tomography (CT) imaging, ventriculography, Gated SPECT, and the MUGA scan. A MUGA scan involves the injection of a radioisotope into the blood and detecting its flow through the left ventricle. The historical gold standard for the measurement of ejection fraction is ventriculography.

Therefore in order to repair the damaged tissues, veins and the heart muscles in order to revive the normal or near to normal Ef, presently a success story has been reported from Dr. Patel and colleagues from the University of Pittsburgh, Baylor University Medical Center and the Benetti Foundation in Rosario, Argentina.

131The trial was conducted on 20 people with a low Ef of 25%. They were injected with stem cells from the bone marrow from their hip bones. These later on was found to regenerate heart muscles, and veins.

A six month follow up was done to find that there was a 30% improvement in Ef. Presently the Ef of the patients are 55% which is approximately near to that of the normal value.

“We don’t know if this increase was due to the growth of new heart muscle cells resulting from the stem cell injections or whether the stem cells coaxed existing cells to come out of hibernation,” explained Dr. Patel.

“What we do know is that stem cell transplantation led to significant improvement in cardiac function in these patients undergoing off-pump bypass surgery. But, further investigation is needed to replicate these results, quantify the optimal timing of injection and to look at the cellular effects of the therapy,” he added.

The scientists are also optimistic about the results. If this comes successful after the future clinical trials it will be a relief for the heart patients to return to their normal life with lesser breathing troubles. Hope this will surely help you to breathe deep in.